Ukrainian Antarctic journal 2022-09-20T16:58:15+02:00 Oksana Pnyovska Open Journal Systems <p>The scientific professional edition Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (UAj) is a scientific journal that publishes peer-reviewed materials.</p> <p>Periodicity:&nbsp;twice a year.</p> <p>Ukrainian Antarctic journal accepts for publication scientific papers, short notes, and reviews.</p> <p>UAj publishes fundamental and applied research materials, relevant scientific and technical developments related to the study of polar and high- mountain regions in the following fields: Geology, Geodesy and mining, Geography, Biology, Physics and Mathematics.</p> Results of long-term tectonomagnetic research in the Akademik Vernadsky station region, the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula 2022-09-20T16:58:06+02:00 V. Maksymchuk I. Chobotok R. Kuderavets Ye. Nakalov N. Pyrizhok O. Pavlyuk L. Yanush <p>The study aims to analyze the results of long-term tectonomagnetic observations on the Antarctic tectonomagnetic polygon in the region of the Akademik Vernadsky station to investigate the current geodynamics at the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. The data (1998—2020) were collected as regular discrete geomagnetic measurements. They were used to study the temporal changes of the local magnetic field between the observation epochs and tectonomagnetic anomalies. We create a temporal series of the changes in the local magnetic field for every point of the observation network on the polygon and provide the map of tectonomagnetic anomalies over different observation periods. The tectonomagnetic anomalies of 2.0—2.8 nT · year<sup>–1</sup> were found in the Argentine Islands region. The anomalies’ spatial structure agrees with elements of the tectonic structure of the Earth crust. We studied the spatial-temporal connection of the tectonomagnetic anomalies with the region seismicity and estimated the values of tectonic stresses in the lithosphere within the piezomagnetic mechanism. The spatial-temporal structure of tectonomagnetic anomalies in the region shows the response of the geological environment to the change in the tectonic stresses in the local crust. Based on the theoretical calculations and other geological and geophysical data, we conclude that a piezomagnetic effect causes the anomalies under the action of stretching tectonic stresses (~1 bar · year<sup>–1</sup>) in the sub-latitudinal direction. Given the urgency of discovering the seismotectonic processes and current regional dynamics, the tectonomagnetic observations on the polygon should be continued as a yearly monitoring program, including other methods of geophysics and geodesy.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Observation of the ionosphere by ionosondes in the Southern and Northern hemispheres during geospace events in October 2021 2022-09-20T16:58:07+02:00 M. Reznychenko O. Bogomaz D. Kotov T. Zhivolup O. Koloskov V. Lisachenko <p>The paper presents the results of ionospheric observations performed over the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station and Millstone Hill (USA). Ionospheric parameters such as peak electron density and height (h<sub>mF2</sub> and N<sub>mF2</sub>) in October 2021 are shown and discussed. The results of the comparative analysis between observations and predictions of the International Reference Ionosphere 2016 (IRI-2016) model are presented. The main objectives of this work are an investigation of the ionosphere response to space weather effects in the Northern and Southern hemispheres in the American longitudinal sector using ionosondes located at the Vernadsky station and near the magnetically conjugate region – Millstone Hill, and a comparison of observations with the model. The F2-layer peak height was calculated from ionograms obtained by ionosonde using subsequent electron density profile inversion. Diurnal variations of hmF2 and NmF2 were calculated using a set of sub-models of the IRI-2016 model for comparison with experimental results. A strong negative response of the ionosphere to the moderate geomagnetic storm on October 12, 2021 was revealed over the Vernadsky station and Millstone Hill. During October 21–31, 2021, the gradual night-to-night increase in NmF2 (by a factor of ~2) was observed over the Vernadsky station. It was found that the IRI hmF2 sub-models (SHU-2015 and AMTB-2013) provide a relatively good agreement with the observed variations of hmF2 in the daytime and nighttime for almost the entire investigated period over both the Vernadsky station and Millstone Hill. The largest deviations for both IRI hmF2 sub-models occurred during the nighttime of geomagnetically disturbed periods. The IRI NmF2 submodels (URSI and CCIR) generally agree with the observations. However, observations and model predictions differ somewhat in the geomagnetically disturbed periods. According to the results of the standard deviation calculations, it cannot be concluded that any of the IRI-2016 sub-models is better than the others. The hypotheses on the possible reasons for the differences in the modeled and observed variations of hmF2 and NmF2 are proposed and discussed in the frame of well-known ionospheric storms’ mechanisms. The results obtained in this paper demonstrate the peculiarities of the ionosphere in different hemispheres of the American longitude sector under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions and provide one more validation of the modern empirical international reference models of the ionosphere.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Antarctic planetary wave spectrum under different polar vortex conditions in 2019 and 2020 based on total ozone column data 2022-09-20T16:58:08+02:00 A. Grytsai G. Milinevsky Yu. Andrienko A. Klekociuk Yu. Rapoport O. Ivaniha <p>We examine the zonal wavenumber spectrum of planetary (Rossby) waves in the atmosphere above Antarctica in each of two contrasting years: in 2019, when there was a sudden stratospheric warming (SSW), and in 2020 when the Antarctic stratospheric vortex was unusually strong and long-lived. The ozone hole (OH) is developed over Antarctica in spring, and its state depends on disturbances of the stratospheric polar vortex by planetary waves (PW). Our analysis uses data on the distribution of the total ozone column from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on the Aura satellite and ground-based measurements from the Dobson spectrophotometer at the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station in Antarctica. The 2019 SSW strongly displaced the Antarctic vortex off-pole and aided the breakdown of the ozone hole. The SSW occurred during the peak activity of quasi-stationary planetary wave-1, which was enhanced at the time of the warming by the large amplitude of traveling wave-2. In the spring of 2020, the stratospheric polar vortex was relatively undisturbed, allowing the OH area to attain a size close to its historical maximum. A factor in 2020 that aided the stability of the vortex was the relatively small amplitude of wave-1. The <br>stability was maintained despite regular periods when the amplitude of traveling wave-2 attained or even exceeded values around the time of the SSW in 2019. We find that a factor contributing to the differences between the wave effects in the two years is the dynamics of the quasi-stationary wave-1. Anticorrelation of the wave-1 and wave-2 amplitudes near the edge of the vortex was clearly observed in 2020, which can be caused by the transfer of planetary wave energy between different spectral wave components, unlike the situation in 2019.</p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Variability of the oceanographic structures of the Southern Ocean by the FerryBox data 2022-09-20T16:58:09+02:00 V. Komorin Yu. Dikhanov V. Bolshakov Yu. Popov L. Matsokin <p><span class="fontstyle0">During Antarctic summers in the 2018—2021 period, physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the upper layer of seawater were continuously recorded using the FerryBox (FB) software and measuring system installed on-board the Ukrainian krill fishing trawler F/V More Sodruzhestva. The main hydrological fronts of the South Atlantic and the Southern Ocean were crossed from Cape Town to the Antarctic Peninsula. About 800,000 one-minute FB measurements were used in this research to determine and identify marine structures. The paper aims to estimate the spatial-temporal variability of oceanographic parameters of the surface layer of water in the Southern Ocean based on the FB data analysis. We use classical methods of analysis of hydrological structures, graphical, comparative, and statistical types of analysis of the field data, as well as data from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Trawling areas were considered as hydrological landfills. We found a decrease in the total number of front crosses: from 8.6% in the 2018—2019 season to 3.9% in the 2020—2021 season. Analysis of the quality of information obtained from the FB showed that after adjustment the measurements allow solving various oceanographic problems, such as identifying frontal zones and detailing their hydrological structure, determining surface water masses and variability of their distribution limits, highlighting significant cycles in time of the measured parameters, studying the gas component of the upper sea layer water. A comparative analysis of the results of the FB observations with the CMEMS data showed their qualitative consistency.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Measured and modeled vertical structure of precipitation during mixed-phase event near the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula 2022-09-20T16:58:10+02:00 D. Pishniak S. Razumnyi <p><span class="fontstyle0">Precipitation structures are easy to detect, however, the mesoscale atmospheric processes which they reflect are challenging to understand in Polar Regions and hard to model numerically. Currently, the spatial distribution of precipitation can be tracked at the resolution of minutes and seconds. For this purpose, the researchers at the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station employ several near-ground measurement systems and the Micro Rain Radar for remote vertical measurements. Measurements show stochastic precipitation variability caused by turbulence, precipitation bands related to the atmospheric processes of its formation, phase transition (melting) zones, and wind shears. The time scale of bands in the stratiform precipitation typically varied in the range of 5—15 minutes and corresponded to the 2—15 km spatial scale of atmospheric circulations according to the modeled parameters of the atmosphere. The Polar Weather Research and Forecast (Polar WRF) model was used to reveal the general atmospheric conditions. We also tested and evaluated its ability to reproduce small structures. A simple method based on typical model variables is proposed to identify the precipitation melting layer in the simulation data, similar to that determined by radars. The results were satisfyingly consistent with the position of the 0 </span><span class="fontstyle2">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">C isotherm in the model and with the radar measurements. In addition, the method highlighted supercooled mixed-phase precipitation. Modeling showed good results for large-scale processes like atmospheric fronts and general air mass features in the case study. However, even at the 1 km resolution the simulation reproduced thin mesoscale precipitation features smoothly, which sometimes looks unrealistic. As for other precipitation peculiarities, like band inclination, melting layer position, and mixed-phase zones, the Polar WRF model demonstrates high consistency with observations. The model can describe the atmospheric conditions except for the investigation of precipitation-initiating mechanisms, which still is a challenge for modeling at a small scale.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Arctic fjord during warming: Planktonic point of view 2022-09-20T16:58:10+02:00 J. Wiktor M. Głuchowska K. Błachowiak-Samołyk K. Piwosz S. Kwaśniewski K. Jankowska K. Dmoch J. M. Węsławski <p><span class="fontstyle0">The climate affects aquatic ecosystems worldwide, yet the most dramatic impact has been observed in Polar Regions. The presented study aimed to test the hypothesis that changes in biodiversity are linked to changes in the food web functioning under different temperature conditions, with large species dominant in cold waters and smaller species dominant in warmer waters. Two sites with contrasting hydrology were surveyed in summer 2005 in Hornsund (west Spitsbergen). The first site was located close to the fjord entrance and was strongly influenced by the Atlantic waters (WARM). The second was located deep inside the fjord, where the water is fresher and colder due to glacier meltwater runoff (COLD). Temperature, salinity and photosynthetic active radiation were measured, nutrient concentrations and chlorophyll </span><span class="fontstyle2">a </span><span class="fontstyle0">were analyzed. Plankton biota, including different fractions of zooplankton, phytoplankton and bacteria was collected and enumerated. The temperature differences were the most pronounced out of the abiotic parameters measured. In particular, the COLD site was characterized by lower water temperature and higher turbidity due to the influence of meltwater. Significant differences in the composition and the quantitative ratios of plankton biota were noted, with the most dramatic variation in the number of microplankton taxa and their biomass. The overall plankton biomass at the WARM site (91 mg C </span><span class="fontstyle3">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">m</span><span class="fontstyle0">–3</span><span class="fontstyle0">) was higher than that at the COLD site (71 mg C </span><span class="fontstyle3">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">m</span><span class="fontstyle0">–3</span><span class="fontstyle0">), as well as the primary production rates. Microplanktonic assemblages at the WARM site included twice as many taxa. The protists constituted more than half of the plankton biomass at the WARM site (53.2%), whereas their share at the COLD site was slightly higher (63.6%). The nanoplankton fraction was numerically dominant among the protists, whereas copepods were the main component of the zooplankton biomass. The differences in planktonic communities’ compositions observed between the two sites might have arisen due to the influence of turbid meltwater runoff, which eliminates larger, strictly autotrophic and decreases primary production.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Analysis of the helminth community of Notothenia coriiceps (Actinopterygii: Nototheniidae) collected in the water area of the Argentine Islands, West Antarctica 2022-09-20T16:58:11+02:00 T. Kuzmina Yu. Kuzmin O. Salganskiy O. Lisitsyna E. Korol <p><span class="fontstyle0">Helminth community of the Antarctic black rockcod, </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Notothenia coriiceps</em>, </span><span class="fontstyle0">was examined using the fish samples collected in 2014—2015 (106 specimens) and 2020—2021 (78 specimens) in the water area of the Argentine Islands, West Antarctica. In total, 30,951 helminth specimens were collected and identified. We analyse the helminth infra- and component communities and investigate possible changes in the main parameters of helminth communities of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">N. coriiceps </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">during the six-year period. Thirty species of helminths from five taxonomic groups were recorded: one species of Monogenea, 5 of Nematoda, 4 of Cestoda, 9 of Trematoda, and 11 of Acanthocephala. </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Notothenia coriiceps </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">was found to be the definitive host of 18 helminth species; 12 species parasitize it in the larval stage using </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">N. coriiceps </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">as the second intermediate or paratenic host. The proportion of larval helminths in the samples was lower in 2014—2015 (73.4%) than in 2020—2021 (81.4%). The number of dominant helminth species (infection prevalence &gt;50%) increased from seven in 2014—2015 to nine in 2020—2021. In helminth infracommunities, the species richness was similar in two samples. On the other hand, we found significantly higher helminth abundance in the infracommunities from the sample collected in 2020—2021. In the helminth component community, the diversity indices (Shannon, Simpson, Pielou, Berger-Parker) evidenced higher evenness and lower domination in the sample collected in 2014—2015 compared to the sample collected in 2020—2021. Lower evenness in 2020—2021 was due to the larger relative abundance of larval </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Pseudoterranova</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">sp. and </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Corynosoma </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">spp. We suggest a deeper investigation of the role of separate helminth species in the component community changes, as well as further monitoring of component community parameters as prospective directions for future studies of helminth communities of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">N. coriiceps </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">in West Antarctica.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Taxocene of pelagic copepods in coastal waters of the Argentine Islands, West coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, in 2021—2022 2022-09-20T16:58:13+02:00 V. Tkachenko <p><span class="fontstyle0">Pelagic ecosystems are changing in response to the recent climate warming. The mesozooplankton and copepods in particular are important indicators of the state of aquatic ecosystems. Zooplankton in Antarctic waters has been monitored regularly to study biodiversity, food chains, and ecological cycles. In 2021–2022, pilot study of mesozooplankton groups was added to the marine biological research of the Ukrainian Antarctic Program. The preliminary information was obtained on the taxonomic composition and functional characteristics of the taxocene of copepods in the coastal waters of the Argentine Islands. The observed diversity is strongly influenced by the conditions and the available sampling gear. The samples were collected from motor boats using three kinds of plankton nets depending on the weather and ice conditions. From June to February, the predominant species were the common coastal species and species adapted to feeding in the cold upper layers in winter. Trawling samples collected from March to late May best illustrate the seasonal dynamics of the mesozooplankton communities’ temporary and permanent components. Twelve copepods from eight families were identified to the species level. Most constituent species were omnivorous (7 species), followed by detritophages (3 species). The community’s phytophages and predators were locally common. This trophic distribution likely is evidence that they were collected in the surface layer, which is not always favorable for feeding. Therefore, the percentage of omnivorous opportunists was relatively high. Some of the sampled material requires molecular-biological analysis, especially the copepods from the </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Oncaea </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">Philippi, 1843 and </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Triconia</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">B</span><span class="fontstyle3">ö</span><span class="fontstyle0">ttger-Schnack, 1999 genera. The older copepodites, in particular the adult specimens, were rarely collected. The state of the material was not ideal for unambiguous identification by morphological features. Comparing the results with the latest research on the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula, we see that the species composition is highly similar (around 80%), except for the deep-water taxa.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal New sightings of the Southern right whales in West Antarctic Peninsula waters 2022-09-20T16:58:13+02:00 O. Savenko А. Friedlaender <p><span class="fontstyle0">Southern right whales (SRW) in the southwest Atlantic are recognized as slowly recovering after the massive population decline induced by harvesting. SRWs spend summer months in high-latitude feeding grounds and migrate to mid-latitude wintering grounds in autumn, where breeding occurs. Only a few sightings are known for the Antarctic waters as far south as 64</span><span class="fontstyle2">° </span><span class="fontstyle0">S. The West Antarctic Peninsula is a biologically productive area experiencing marine ecosystem transformations caused by climate changing at one of the fastest rates on Earth. The continental shelf of this region is important for krill stocks — a key prey source for SRW. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the austral summer and autumn presence of the SRWs in the waters of the West Antarctic Peninsula. In May—June 2009, vessel observations were made during a National Science Foundation research cruise. In March 2014, opportunistic surveys were conducted by researchers using the tour vessel as a platform of opportunity. During late March and April of 2018, January — July 2019 and March — April 2020, regular boat-based observations and vessel surveys were conducted in frames of the XXIII and XXIV Ukrainian Antarctic Expeditions, based at the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station. In our study we discuss four sightings of SRWs occurred at south of 64</span><span class="fontstyle2">° </span><span class="fontstyle0">S (2), and 65</span><span class="fontstyle2">° </span><span class="fontstyle0">S (2). On May 7, 2009, a single adult foraging SRW was sighted in Wilhelmina Bay. On March 22, 2014, an adult SRW was resting with two adult humpback whales in the northern part of the Lemaire Channel. On April 7, 2018, one SRW was sighted in a group with four humpback whales, and intensive interspecies social interactions happened. The last encounter of the SRW happened on April 24, 2020, in Gerlache Strait, near the southeastern coast of the Brabant Island — a single adult right whale was noticed while travelling. Results of our study indicate the autumn presence of some SRWs in the West Antarctic Peninsula waters — on the edge of the southern limit of known distribution for the species.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Faunistic analysis of freshwater zooplankton in small rock pools of Maritime Antarctica 2022-09-20T16:58:14+02:00 M. Nabokin <p><span class="fontstyle0">Small water bodies like the rock pools are used as a model system for evolutionary and environmental studies with a growing interest. The zooplankton in the rock pools is a most interesting and promising research object. Although the first papers on Antarctic rock pools were published early in the XX century, these water bodies have been not investigated in detail and comprehensively. The paper aims to review and systematize the knowledge on the diversity of the freshwater zooplankton of the Maritime Antarctica, South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands. These organisms include meso- and macro- zooplankton (0.2—20 mm) living in the water and unable to propel themselves against a current, 69 taxa in total. The most diverse of them are 52 taxa of rotifers with 4 taxa identified to the subspecies, 44 — to species, and 4 — to genus level. Crustaceans include 16 taxa (14 identified to the species, 1 — to genus, and 1 — to order); 9 taxa belong to branchiopods, 3 — to ostracods, and 4 — to copepods. One insect species, </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Parochlus steinenii</span></em><span class="fontstyle0">, is present in the plankton at the larval stage. Summarizing these results, the rock pools of the fairly well studied South Shetland Islands and South Orkney Islands (41 and 46 taxa, respectively) exhibit diversity of living organisms similar to the comparable waterbodies from other parts of the world, while the rest of the region has a<br>much lower diversity (11 taxa). However, this discrepancy is presumably a research artifact because so far, only a few special studies have been done in the Maritime Antarctica. For example, at the Argentine Islands three identified taxa only (2 crustaceans and 1 rotifer) are known with a number of rotifers awaiting identification.</span></p> 2022-08-04T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic Journal Correction: The Toponymy of the Argentine Islands area, the Kyiv Peninsula (West Antarctica). 2022-09-20T16:58:15+02:00 H. Yevchun А. Fedchuk І. Drohushevska O. Pnyovska M. Chernyshenko І. Parnikoza <p><span class="fontstyle0">Author Correction: </span><span class="fontstyle2">Yevchun, H., Fedchuk, A., Drohushevska, I., Pnyovska, O., Chernyshenko, M., &amp; Parnikoza, I. (2021). The Toponymy of the Argentine Islands area, the Kyiv Peninsula (West Antarctica). </span><em><span class="fontstyle0">Ukrainian Antarctic Journal</span></em><span class="fontstyle2">, 2, 127—157.<br></span></p> 2022-09-20T14:14:56+02:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ukrainian Antarctic journal