Ukrainian Antarctic journal 2022-02-17T08:29:29+02:00 Oksana Pnyovska Open Journal Systems <p>The scientific professional edition Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (UAj) is a scientific journal that publishes peer-reviewed materials.</p> <p>Periodicity:&nbsp;twice a year.</p> <p>Ukrainian Antarctic journal accepts for publication scientific papers, short notes, and reviews.</p> <p>UAj publishes fundamental and applied research materials, relevant scientific and technical developments related to the study of polar and high- mountain regions in the following fields: Geology, Geodesy and mining, Geography, Biology, Physics and Mathematics.</p> The first Ukrainian permanent GNSS station in Antarctica: processing and analysis of observation data 2022-02-17T08:29:21+02:00 І. Savchyn Yu. Otruba K. Tretyak <p><span class="fontstyle0">The main purpose of this work is to study and analyze the coordinate time series of the first Ukrainian permanent Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) station in Antarctica — Antarctic Station Academic Vernadsky (ASAV). We also aimed to do a comprehensive study of geophysical factors on the coordinate time series values and determine the values of the displacement components of this GNSS station. Processing of measurements was performed using the software Bernese GNSS Software v.5.2. The Bernese Processing Engine (BPE) module and the RNX2SNX (RINEX-TO-SINEX) processing algorithm were used to obtain daily solutions of permanent GNSS station ASAV. Daily solutions of the permanent GNSS station ASAV and the vector of its displacements were determined in the coordinate system IGb08. The vector of the permanent GNSS station ASAV has a northeasterly direction. The obtained results are consistent with the model of tectonic plate movements of this region. To study the characteristic periods of harmonic oscillations of coordinate time series of permanent GNSS station ASAV due to various geophysical factors. A set of studies was conducted, which included the development of an algorithm and a package of applications for processing time series and determining optimal curves that most accurately describe them. Thus, for each time series, the original equation is used to determine the optimal period of oscillation. As a result, an anomalous distribution of fluctuations in the values of permanent GNSS station ASAV with different periods was revealed — this indicates the complex nature of the influence of geophysical factors on the spatial location and confirms the need for systematic studies of such factors on the stability and displacement of GNSS station. It is established that the permanent GNSS station ASAV is exposed to seasonal oscillations, associated with changes in environmental conditions.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal The impact of volcanic emission of halogenated compounds on the Southern Hemisphere and Antarctic environment 2022-02-17T08:29:22+02:00 M. Basylevska V. Bogillo <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study aims to estimate and compare the global emission for 20 halocarbons from volcanic and hydrothermal sources into the Earth’s atmosphere. It follows from the results that the contribution of volcanic emission for these species in the depletion of stratospheric ozone in the catalytic halogen cycles does not exceed 0.1%. Still, they significantly impair the level of tropospheric ozone near the volcanoes. The scheme of gas-phase free radical chain halogenation of the hydrocarbons is proposed and confirmed by thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. This explains the experimental ratios between concentrations of CH</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">I : CH</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">Br : CH</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">Cl and CCl</span><span class="fontstyle0"><sub>4</sub> </span><span class="fontstyle0">: CHCl</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">: CH</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">Cl</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">: CH</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">Cl in the volcanic gases. The possible volcanic emission of halocarbons from Erebus and explosive eruptions in the Southern Hemisphere during the Holocene do not have a notable impact on their content in the Antarctic ice. However, volcanic emission of hydrogen halides (HX, X = Cl, Br or I) from powerful eruptions in the Southern Hemisphere during Holocene could deplete the stratospheric ozone substantially, causing a drastic impact of the harmful UV-B radiation on the biota of continents and ocean. We calculated the injected Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine values and estimated the column ozone percentage change, </span><span class="fontstyle2">Δ</span><span class="fontstyle0">%O</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">, for 20 known volcano eruptions in the tropical belt and Southern latitudes. The estimates lead to more than 50% depletion of stratospheric ozone after past powerful volcanic eruptions. The range is estimated for possible ozone depletion after the eruption of Deception Island’s volcano occurred near 4000 BP (from 44 to 56%), which is comparable with those from Krakatoa, Samalas, and Tambora eruptions. A similar analysis was carried out for 192 yrs series of Mt Takahe (West Antarctica) halogen-rich volcanic eruptions at 17,7 kyr, showing extensive stratospheric ozone depletion over Antarctica. Crude estimations of stratospheric ozone depletion (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Δ</span><span class="fontstyle0">%O</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">3</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">) after Ferrar Large Igneous Province eruptions (183 Ma) in Antarctica were performed, considering the whole LIP volume of basaltic lavas, and they range from 49 to 83%. Given the very low emission rate of HCl due to non-eruptive degassing of the Mt. Erebus volcano, the volcanic emission of Erebus could not be a fundamental reason for modern springtime ozone hole formation over Antarctica.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Vertical ozone profiles in the atmosphere over the Antarctic Peninsula and Kyiv by Umkehr observations 2022-02-17T08:29:23+02:00 Yu. Andrienko G. Milinevsky V. Danylevsky <p><span class="fontstyle0">The Umkehr observations over Kyiv (Ukraine) and Antarctic Peninsula areas were processed for the first time to retrieve and analyse the vertical distribution of ozone. The Umkehr observations have been pre-processed using the UMK92 software package proposed by the World Ozone and UV-radiation Data Centre (WOUDC). The set of the calculated vertical ozone profiles for Kyiv–Goloseyev station (2011–2020) and Akademik Vernadsky station (2005–2009) has been obtained. Analysis of ozone profiles observed with Dobson spectrophotometer D040 indicates that the maximum ozone concentration is located in the altitude range of 15–25 km with an average height of 19.8 ± 1.4 km. It corresponds to the layer of maximum ozone concentration in the mid-latitude stratosphere. The maximum ozone partial content in Dobson Units per the layers (DU/layer) with thickness of 5 km altitude for most of the years are of 60–80 DU/layer. There are also days with the maximum ozone content significantly larger than an average. A characteristic feature of the profiles is that the lower ozone content occur in summer and autumn months in the range of 60–75 DU/layer. The winter and spring profiles demonstrate higher ozone values at the maximum. To analyse the vertical profiles of ozone in Antarctic Peninsula area, we use Umkehr data from observations at the Akademik Vernadsky station with the Dobson D123 spectrophotometers in 2005–2009. The data processing and the calculation of the vertical ozone profiles was provided according to the methodology developed at the Kyiv–Goloseyev station. It is shown that the ozone profiles at the Akademik Vernadsky station vary in a wide range of values of the maximum ozone concentration from 40 to 110 DU/layer. Ozone content at maximum of vertical distribution was changing dramatically from day to day in the Antarctic region during the ozone hole period.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Evaluation of errors in estimating the azimuth of powerful lightning discharges from measurements of Q-burstst 2022-02-17T08:29:24+02:00 А. Shvets O. Budanov O. Koloskov O. Nickolaenko O. Shvets Yu. Yampolsky <p><span class="fontstyle0">In this work, we study the variability of errors in determining the azimuth of Q-bursts’ sources on a daily time scale. Q-bursts are electromagnetic pulse radiation in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range, excited by powerful lightning discharges, and they are used to locate lightnings over the world. We estimated the errors from data collected for two horizontal orthogonal magnetic field components of Q-bursts. Experimental records of Q-bursts were made at Akademik Vernadsky station from March to April 2019, which covers the vernal equinox day. We determined the azimuth of a Q-bursts’ source by digital rotation of the coordinate system until the signal in one magnetic component would drop to its minimum value. The absolute value of the azimuth error was estimated from the ratio of the Q-burst’s amplitude to the standard deviation of the residual signal. With an automated processing procedure, we analyzed over 800 thousand Q-bursts with amplitude over 10 picotesla. A characteristic diurnal pattern has been discovered in the estimated azimuth errors variations. The night level of the azimuth error exceeded the day level by about two degrees on average. The decrease-rise-decrease И-shaped swing during transition from night to day and mirror-symmetric N-shaped swing during transition from day to night were identified. Each of those transitional swings takes about four hours. A comparison of the daily variations in the total intensity of ELF background noise with the estimated daily azimuth error diagrams demonstrates the opposite character: maximal level of the ELF background noise was observed during the daytime while the estimated azimuth errors take minimal values at this time. This contradicts the generally accepted notion that increasing the noise increases the error. Thus, we suppose that the residual magnetic component in a Q-burst occurs not only from the background noise but can also result from nonlinear polarization of the incident wave due to gyrotropy of the nighttime lower ionosphere. Coherent waves resulting from diffraction of the incident field on the day-night interface in the Earth-ionosphere cavity could explain the И- and N-shaped swings of the azimuth error during the passage of the solar terminator.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas isolated from Antarctic substrates 2022-02-17T08:29:24+02:00 S. Hnatush S. Komplikevych O. Maslovska O. Moroz T. Peretyatko А. Dzhulai T. Krasnozhon <p><span class="fontstyle0">The study’s primary purposes were establishing the number of microorganisms that exhibit hydrolytic activity in Antarctic soil and mosses samples, isolation of metal-resistant strains of bacteria, and description of their physiological and biochemical properties. Samples collected during the XXIII Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition in 2019 were used. The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms exhibiting proteolytic, amylolytic, cellulase, lipolytic activity was studied. Pure bacterial cultures were isolated using standard microbiological methods. Determination of resistance of isolates to heavy metals was estimated after their cultivation during ten days on agar plates with different concentrations of CdCl</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle2">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">2.5H</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">O, CoCl</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle2">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">6H</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">O, K</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">Cr</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">O</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">7</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">, FeSO</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">4 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle2">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">7H</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">O, CuCl</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2 </span></sub><span class="fontstyle2">⋅ </span><span class="fontstyle0">2H</span><sub><span class="fontstyle0">2</span></sub><span class="fontstyle0">O. Identification of strains was based on the sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, morphological, physiological, and biochemical properties. Among the 23 isolates, nine metal-resistant strains were selected, four of which were identified as </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">Pseudomonas yamanorum </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">ІМV B-7916 and 79_102, and as </span><span class="fontstyle3"><em>P. arsenicoxidans</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">5A_1N_24, and 89_1T_89. Among the selected strains, the most resistant to heavy metals was </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">P. yamanorum </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">79_102. All studied strains synthesize lipases during growth on medium with tween-20, which contains 0.5–1 mM of ferrous sulfate and copper (II) chloride. The studied strains produce exopolysaccharides during growth at 6 and 22 </span><span class="fontstyle2">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">C. The most effective among these strains exopolysaccharides are synthesized by </span><em><span class="fontstyle3">P. arsenicoxidans </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">5A_1N_24 — 768 mg/g of dry weight. Our results expand the knowledge about the diversity of microorganisms of extreme biotopes, their properties, resistance to heavy metal compounds.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Current status of Belgica antarctica Jacobs, 1900 (Diptera: Chironomidae) distribution by the data of Ukrainian Antarctic Expeditions 2022-02-17T08:29:25+02:00 P. Kovalenko V. Trokhymets І. Parnikoza Yu. Protsenko O. Salganskiy А. Dzhulai І. Dykyy M. Nabokin І. Kozeretska V. Gorobchyshyn <p><span class="fontstyle0">Given the recent climate changes and their impact on the Antarctic Peninsula ecosystems, the emergence of invasive species, and increased tourism activity in this region, monitoring changes in the habitats of species native to the Antarctic Peninsula region is necessary. One such species is the Antarctic midge </span><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Belgica antarctica</em> </span><span class="fontstyle0">(Chironomidae). This insect is endemic to the Antarctic Peninsula and adjacent islands. Thorough studies of changes in the range of this species have not been performed in recent decades. In this study, we present the area of </span><em><span class="fontstyle2">Belgica antarctica </span></em><span class="fontstyle0">according to the collections of biological samples during 2007–2021 (XII, XIV, XVI, XXIV, and XXV Ukrainian Antarctic Expeditions). This Antarctic midge was recorded at 26 localities on the Antarctic Peninsula and 212 localities on 55 surrounding islands between 66</span><span class="fontstyle3">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">08</span><span class="fontstyle3">′</span><span class="fontstyle0">38.4</span><span class="fontstyle3">′′ </span><span class="fontstyle0">S, 65</span><span class="fontstyle3">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">43</span><span class="fontstyle3">′</span><span class="fontstyle0">37.1</span><span class="fontstyle3">′′ </span><span class="fontstyle0">W (Cape Evensen, Stresher Peninsula, opposite the Marie Island, west coast of Graham Land) and 62</span><span class="fontstyle3">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">11</span><span class="fontstyle3">′</span><span class="fontstyle0">44.7</span><span class="fontstyle3">′′ </span><span class="fontstyle0">S, 58</span><span class="fontstyle3">°</span><span class="fontstyle0">57</span><span class="fontstyle3">′</span><span class="fontstyle0">40.6</span><span class="fontstyle3">′′ </span><span class="fontstyle0">W (King George Island, South Shetland Islands) from south-west to north-east.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Immune factors and health of Antarctic explorers 2022-02-17T08:29:26+02:00 D. Zabara І. Kozeretska І. Deineko Ya. Anoshko N. Shapovalenko L. Stamboli B. Dons’koi <p><span class="fontstyle0">The immune system plays a major role in human homeostasis, yet a body’s unique individuality complicates the diagnostic forecasting of unfavourable physiological states and diseases. Studying the immunophenotypic features of winterers of the Ukrainian Antarctic Expeditions before, during, and after their assignments might shed some light on the possible place of immune accentuations in the development of certain physiological states. To determine the natural-killer (NK) cytotoxicity and the immunophenotype in 52 applicants who wanted to take part in an expedition and nine participants who had come back, we used flow cytofluorometry. Blood serum samples taken before, during, and after the expeditions were also tested for hormones, anti-infective, anti-parasitic, and autoimmune antibodies. The high absolute and relative numbers of NK lymphocytes, high NK cytotoxicity, and high expression of HLA-DR on the CD3+CD8+ lymphocytes were correlated with a person’s unfavorable health status during the expedition. In Antarctica, cortisol levels sharply increased, yet they normalized upon return. In most winterers, there were no significant health complications during the expeditions. Neither reactivated nor primary viral infections were registered, as well as clinical autoimmune ones. Upon return, the winterers had significantly lower leukocytes and lymphocytes and increased expression of activation markers (HLA-DR) on the T-cells. The found risk factors can characterize the polar researchers’ immunophenotypes yet require validation on larger samples. The expedition environment causes increased stress, entailing, however, neither clinical manifestations nor elements of immunosuppression. The polar researchers bear the consequences of the prolonged stress that inhibit leucopoiesis as late as six months after their return, which should be considered while reviewing applications for the next season.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Physiological and biochemical traits of yeasts from soils of various ecosystems of East Antarctica 2022-02-17T08:29:27+02:00 E. Gribanova V. Miamin <p><span class="fontstyle0">The diversity of psychrophilic / psychrotolerant microorganisms from Antarctica is a preferred subject of study by microbiologists, in turn, the communities of endolithic and hypolithic yeast cultures are practically not studied, and the literature on the biotechnological potential of such microorganisms should cover important biomolecules in addition to cold-adapted enzymes. In order to study the characteristics and biopotential of yeast cultures isolated from soil samples of East Antarctica, a number of physiological and biochemical tests were carried out. This article provides a list of the studied morphological characteristics, and also describes the results of the study of enzymatic activities and biochemical properties. In the course of research, it was revealed that Antarctic yeast isolates have a wide range of enzymatic activities when growing on agar media: most isolates were characterized by the presence of lipolytic, amylolytic, DNase, urease activities and the production of esters; a much smaller number of isolates were capable of manifesting proteolytic, cellulolytic and pectolytic activities, the release of organic acids and the formation of starch-like compounds. The study of tolerance to stress showed the presence of resistance of the studied cultures to the effects of ultraviolet radiation with a wavelength of 254 nm and low concentrations of copper sulfate in the environment. A qualitative assessment of the level of glycogen in yeast cells by staining with Lugol's solution showed that one culture is capable of accumulating glycogen in significant amounts. Additionally, the ability of yeast cells to accumulate lipids with increasing age of cultures was shown. The destruction of the surface of the mineral motor oil by the culture broth made it possible to identify yeast isolates with high destructive activity. This experience allows us to consider Antarctic yeast cultures as promising producers of biologically active compounds. The variety and spectrum of physiological activities of the investigated isolates allows us to consider them as promising producers of biological compounds for use in medicine and biotechnology.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Prospects for the use of wind energy resources at the Akademik Vernadsky station 2022-02-17T08:29:28+02:00 K. Petrenko І. Ivanchenko O. Karmazin <p><span class="fontstyle0">Renewable energy and other methods of minimizing emissions into the atmosphere should be a priority for each country. This approach should be extended to Antarctica scientific stations. The study main objective was to obtain the necessary estimates of the wind energy potential of the Galindez Island territory to estimate the feasibility of installing wind turbines on the territory of the Akademik Vernadsky station. The study of the wind properties over the territory was based on the British Antarctic Survey archive of meteorological parameter average annual values (1950–2020), 3-h wind speed and direction data, registered by the Akademik Vernadsky station (2011–2020), and average daily data from meteorological observations (2014–2018). The Hellman parameter was calculated from satellite data. A number of statistical methods were used to analyze the vertical wind profile, particularly the method of minimizing the arithmetic mean relative modeling error. To assess the amount of generation, the wind speed data at the height of the anemometer sensor were recalculated to the height of the wind turbine axis. Using the wind power characteristics provided by the developers, average annual wind power generation was avaluated. For calculations of wind energy potential, we chose the technique developed by the Department of Wind Power of the Institute of Renewable Energy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. The analysis of the wind conditions showed a high average daily wind speed (3.9 m/s) and the prevailing wind direction (NNE 24%). The results support the hypothesis about the expediency of installing wind turbines on the territory of the Akademik Vernadsky station. The wind turbine was selected for further wind power calculations based on the other countries experience of using wind turbines in Antarctica and considering the specifics of installation and operation in conditions of high wind speeds, low temperatures and high relative humidity. Based on information on fuel consumption at the Akademik Vernadsky station, it was estimated that the installation of 10 wind turbines SD6 would meet 28.4% of the station's yearly electricity needs.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal The Toponymy of the Argentine Islands area, the Kyiv Peninsula (West Antarctica) 2022-02-17T08:29:28+02:00 H. Yevchun А. Fedchuk І. Drohushevska O. Pnyovska M. Chernyshenko I. Parnikoza <p><span class="fontstyle0">The Argentine Islands – Kyiv Peninsula region is one of the birthplaces of Antarctic research. It lacks any aboriginal people, and so much of the toponymy was contributed by the first expeditions. As the official Ukrainian toponymy of Antarctica is still being worked out, it is important to foster further development of this branch of geography. Outside of this region, there are only a few geographical features given internationally recognized placenames honouring Ukraine and Ukrainians. Thus, the paper aims to prepare the official Ukrainian spelling for the already established toponyms and to propose new ones, including microtoponyms, for the yet-nameless objects of the Argentine Islands area (West Antarctica), considering the already amassed experience of other countries and the current requirements for writing the geographical names. To achieve this, there were used such methods, singly or in combination: transliteration, transcription, adaptive transcoding, and translation. The underlying research presented the history of the local placenames, whereupon they were collected and their standardized Ukrainian written representations spelled out. Based on the history of the Ukrainian contribution to the Antarctic studies, the region's toponymic traditions, and characteristic features of topography, flora and fauna of the Argentine Islands, it was proposed a list of names for the nameless geographical features and microtoponyms in the central Argentine Islands region. The list is far from exhaustive, but rather the first attempt to develop Ukrainian Antarctic toponymy. The results will allow unifying placenames use, help to present the expeditions' findings, and make information searches for the geographical features easier.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal Global environmental initiatives of the EU in Antarctica: Ukraine’s position harmonization and prospect (preceding Ukraine’s chairmanship in the CCAMLR, 2023–2024) 2022-02-17T08:29:29+02:00 A. Fedchuk S. Zherebchuk D. Cheberkus <p><span class="fontstyle0">With the strengthening of the global environmental movement, the Southern Ocean has become an effective international testing ground for the development of spatial planning in marine environments beyond national jurisdiction. This note aims to review the European Union (EU) role in the progress on designation of environmentally representative network of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Antarctica, and the effect of this process on the shaping of Ukraine’s strategy in this region. Following Ukraine’s external vector to European integration, in 2021 the country began formally aligning as a co-proponent with the EU-initiated two MPA proposals — in East Antarctica and the Weddell Sea. This alignment of positions is utterly important, taking into account the approaching of Ukraine's first chairmanship of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources in 2023–2024, which would be an exceptional opportunity for our country to make a significant progress in designation the largest MPAs ever implemented in Antarctica given national interests, including the creation of an international consortium with the involvement of Ukrainian scientific infrastructure in Antarctica, such as Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station and the research vessel </span><span class="fontstyle2">Noosfera</span><span class="fontstyle0">, to implement internationally significant scientific and monitoring programs to evaluate MPAs efficiency with Ukraine as a co-initiator.</span></p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ukrainian Antarctic journal