Ukrainian Antarctic Journal <p><strong>About journal</strong></p> <p>The scientific professional edition Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (UAJ) has been published since 1997 and is dedicated to research of polar and high-mountain regions of the planet. Materials of scientific papers, short reports, reviews commissioned by the editorial board and reviews are accepted for publication.</p> <p>UAJ publishes fundamental and applied research materials, relevant scientific and technical developments related to the study of Antarctica, the Arctic and high- mountain regions carried out by Ukrainian and foreign scientists in the following fields of science:</p> <p>Geology;</p> <p>Geodesy and mining;</p> <p>Geography;</p> <p>Biology;</p> <p>Chemistry;</p> <p>Medicine;</p> <p>Physics and Mathematics;</p> <p>General-technical.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Oksana Pnyovska) (Oksana Pnyovska) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Complex Magnetovariational and Tectonomagnetic Monitoring of Recent Geodynamics in the Western Slope of the Antarctic Peninsula <p><strong>Aim</strong> – investigations of effectiveness and information value of tectonomagnetic and magnetic-variations monitoring complex to study the recent geodynamics of Antarctic Peninsula in the location of Akademik Vernadsky station.</p> <p><strong>Methodology. </strong>The methodology provides long-term magnetic variations observations on the Akademik Vernadsky station. On the base of observations electromagnetic induction vector components (Wise vector) are processing in the range 2.5—60 min. Series of this parameters temporal variations are developing. Tectonomagnetic observations are performed on the stationary network of observational points on the Antarctic geodynamic polygon and then, tectonomagnetic anomalies (increasing of a local magnetic field among observational epochs-total magnetic field vector module) is defined. The nature of tectonomagnetic anomalies usually is connected with variations of tectonic tensions. Compounding of magnetic variations and tectonomagnetic observations allows to upgrade certainty of tectonophysic interpretation of geophysical and geological data for investigations of Antarctic Peninsula recent geodynamics.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The results of tectonomagnetic and magnetic variations observations on the Akademik Vernadsky station in the location of Antarctic tectonomagnetic polygon during 1998—2017 yrs. were analyzed and generalized. Temporal variations of Wise electromagnetic induction vectors and local geomagnetic field variations were investigated. Anomalous effects in tectonomagnetic variations and Wise vectors temporal variations, caused by seismotectonic processes in the region’s lithosphere were defined. Comparative analyses of tectonomagnetic and magnetic variations data was done. Also was justified possibility their complex for monitoring of recent seismotectonic processes in the location of Akademik Vernadsky station.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Complex analyses of long-term tectonomagnetic field and magnetic variations parameters on the Akademik Vernadsky station was done. Correlation between tectonomagnetic effects on the Antarctic geodynamic polygon and anomalous effects in Wise vectors temporal series was defined. Such complex of tectonomagnetic and magnetic variations monitoring is organic and allows to obtain reliable information about Antarctic Peninsula geodynamics in connection with seismic and other geophysical methods.<br><br></p> V.Yu. Maksymchuk, I.O. Chobotok, T.A. Klymkovych, R.S. Kuderavets, E.F. Nakalov, Y.S. Otruba Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 New Geophysical Data About the Pacific Margin (West Antarctica) Magnetic Anomaly Sources and Origin <p>During the seasonal work in the Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions (1997—2012), a significant amount of geological and geophysical studies were carried out.</p> <p>The <strong>main objective of the study</strong> is to obtain new data on the distribution of deep heterogeneities in the structures of the region. It’s allowed to construct the geophysical models and to discuss the existing ideas about the stages of formation and evolution tectonic structures of the West Antarctica near the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). New geophysical models of the Earth's crust were used to study the possible nature of the Pacific Coast magnetic anomaly (PMA) near the AP.</p> <p>The <strong>results</strong> of magnetic, seismic and geoelectric surveys in the region of the Antarctic Peninsula showed that active tectonic processes in the Meso — Cenozoic led to the of PMA magnetic sources forming along the edge of the AP. The spatial heterogeneity of the various segments of PMA can also be associated with a variety of depth, thickness and magnetic susceptibility of individual units that form the source of regional anomaly. The magnetic PMA sources in the Earth's crust can be limited in depth (up to 8—10 km) and consist of a series of bodies with different age, composition and magnetization. The shape of the PMA anomalies is significantly affected by numerous local intrusions located in the upper part of the earth's crust. In certain segments of the PMA, they form an additional horizon of magnetized bodies associated with the processes of young volcanism in the structures of the continental margin.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. The materials of geophysical surveys and complex geological and geophysical models of the earth's crust and upper mantle were analyzed, which made it possible to identify structural features, evolution, and geodynamic processes of the development of regional structures, as well as to obtain new data on the possible nature of PMA. The total anomaly name (PMA) can formally integrate anomalies of different ages and origins. Numerous local intrusions of young (Cenozoic) age form an additional horizon of magnetized bodies associated with volcanic processes at the top of the crust. Some segments of the PMA may be associated with the processes of tectonic changes near the Antarctic — Scotia paleo-plate boundary, as well as teсtonic and magmatic activity in the areas of paleorift structures detection. New geophysical results for different PMA — segments from the Palmer Land to Powell Basin were used to summarize current ideas about the sources and origins of this positive magnetic anomaly.<br><br></p> V. D. Soloviev, V. G. Bakhmutov, I. N. Korchagin, T. P. Yegorova Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Features of Seismicity in the Argentine Islands Archipelago Region Due to the Processes of Icebergs Formation <p>During the year in the region of the location of the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station large numbers of local and regional seismic signals are registered.</p> <p>The <strong>main objective</strong> of the study is to determine the sources of generation of seismic signals and the dynamics of seismicity in the Antarctic station area. Polarization methods used to determine the direction of the signal source are obtained using the three-component digital seismic station Guralp. The algorithm of automatic detection of seismic signals and the determination of their parameters is proposed in this work.</p> <p><strong>The result</strong> of the works is the azimuthal time distribution of registered signals and the establishment of sources of their generation. It is concluded that the main sources of seismic signals around the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station are the cracking of the nearest glaciers of the archipelago, avalanches, the processes of iceberg formation processes at the nearest to the station glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula. The largest number of signals was obtained from the processes of iceberg formation, which may be related to climate change and the environment. A further continuation of the work should be an analysis of changes in the seismicity of the region over the past decades with the involvement of seismic data from neighboring Antarctic stations, determining the connection of seismicity with climate change. The greatest interest in observing the variations in the rate of destruction of glaciers in the polar regions can be to assess the impact of short and medium-term climate change on the environment. Seismic observations are a relatively cheap, year-round and all-weather instrument for solving the problem of observing glaciers, and phenomena associated with them.<br><br></p> O. I. Liashchyk, Ye.V. Karyagin Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 A Brief Review of Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation Results of Ice Caps on Galindez, Winter and Skua Islands (Wilhelm Archipelago, Antarctica) for the Period April 2017 – January 2019 <p>This paper represents results of GPR surveying of the ice caps on Galindez (–64.24716W; –65.24992S), Winter (–64.25954W; –65.24944S) and Skua (–64.26530W; –65.25309S) islands (Wilhelm Archipelago, Antarctica) for the period April 2017 — January 2019.</p> <p>The <strong>main objectives</strong> were identification of the ice layering, monitoring of interglacial heterogeneities (crevasses, interglacial channels and voids) and measurements of the ice thickness.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Surveying on the glaciers has been done with ground coupled shielded bowtie antenna VIY3-300 (300 MHz) GPR and with air coupled dipole Zond 12-e (75 MHz) antenna system. Monitoring investigation of glacier’s interior has been done with VIY3-300. Zond 12-e was applied mostly for indication of the ice-rock border. Monitoring investigation has been done on one (1) ice cap on Galindez Island, on two (2) ice caps on Winter Island and on two (2) ice caps on Skua Island. Monitoring with VIY3-300 GPR of the ice cap on Galindez Island has been done once per month since April 2017. Four surveys were done on Winter Island: May 2017, January, May and October 2018. Four periods were surveyed on Skua Island: May and September 2017, January—February and October 2018. Monitoring with VIY3-300 has been done on the same position (according to the GPS data) each time. For precise investigation during February—March 2018, islands were covered with a grid of profiles with 25 meters spacing between them.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three (3) to eight (8) strong internal linear reflections are detected in the ice caps, heterogeneities are visible closer to edges of the glaciers, seasonal anomalies in glacier`s interior are observed and a maximum ice thickness of 35 meters on Galindez Island is obtained. Seasonal anomalies were traced better in November—January 2017—2018 than during November—January 2018—2019. Reflection from the ice-rock border is better visible on the data from Zond 12-e, but layering and interior structure are better identified with VIY3-300. This spatial resolution difference evidently happened because central frequency of antenna was 4 times higher in VIY3-300 than in Zond 12-e. Further monitoring of the ice caps on Galindez, Winter and Skua islands is recommended to trace their evolution. It is crucial to continue these scientific observations in the future because changes of small ice caps in West Antarctica are indicators of global warming.<br><br></p> A. Chernov, K. Lamsters, J. Karušs, M. Krievāns, Yu. Otruba Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Modeling Summer Circulation and Distribution of Temperature and Salinity in the Bellingshausen Sea and on the Antarctic Peninsula Shelf <p>The<strong> objective</strong> of the study is to simulate the summer circulation and the distribution of temperature and salinity in the Bellingshausen Sea and on the shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula. Numerical methods are used for simulation by means the SCHISM model with an unstructured triangular horizontal grid and a vertical local sigma coordinate system (LSC<sup>2</sup>). The k-kl model of turbulence was used to&nbsp; describe turbulence. Heat, momentum and salt fluxes were set on the ocean surface, which were calculated according to the ERA-Interim reanalysis. At open boundaries, the vertical distribution of temperature and salinity was determined according to the HYCOM reanalysis calculations. On the western open border, the level deviations and the vertical velocity distribution calculated by HYCOM were also specified. At the open eastern boundary of the computational domain, the radiation conditions were specified.</p> <p>The<strong> results</strong> of the HYCOM reanalysis were also used as initial conditions. The results of modelling the current, temperature, and salinity fields in the period February—March 2014 were compared with the available observational data on the shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula, including data from the Ukrainian Antarctic expedition. The calculated vertical distributions of temperature and salinity on the shelf are consistent with observations, in particular, in the position and magnitude of the minimum temperature of the cold intermediate layer and its temperature in the region of the Argentine Islands. Calculations have shown that the main component of the circulation is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which carries water to the east. In ACC, several jets are formed flowing into the Drake Strait, whereas a chain of vortices separates the shelf zone of the Antarctic Peninsula and the ACC. In the summer, a current directed southwards along the edge of the shelf, caused mainly by large-scale ocean circulation and the wind field.</p> <p><strong>It was concluded </strong>that the formation of zones of upwelling and downwelling on the shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula substantially depends on the changes in the atmospheric circulation over the Bellingshausen Sea.<br><br></p> V. Maderich, K. Terletska, I. Brovchenko, A. Bezhenar Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 On the Possibility of Sounding the Boundaries of the Nothern Auroral Oval by Registrations of High Frequency Signals on Superlong Radio Paths <p><strong>Objective</strong>. Developing a technique for investigation of a dynamic of the equatorial boundary of the night side of the Northern auroral oval using data of registrations of scattered HF signals on superlong radio paths.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Spectral, time, and time-frequency analysis of HF signals from time service stations, recorded at the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station (UAS). Selection of the spatial mode of signals scattered on the plasma inhomogeneities of the high latitude ionosphere of the northern hemisphere. The developed method is based on the measurement of the Doppler frequency shift and time of the group delay of the radio signal.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. The possibility of studying the dynamics of the equatorial boundary of the night side of the Northern auroral oval using characteristics of scattered HF signals of time service stations registered at UAS is demonstrated.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. In the registrations of HF signals of the RWM station (55.75°N, 37.64°E) at UAS (65.25°S, 64.27°W) it is possible to select the mode scattered on the inhomogeneities of the high-latitude ionosphere of the northern hemisphere. The method for diagnosing the equatorial boundary of the auroral oval by observations on UAS of scattered radio signals from stations of the time service is proposed. It is convenient to use such stations as sources of the probe signal for diagnostic of the ionosphere so far as they have a number of advantages, including low relative frequency instability of master oscillators; weakly directed antennas and sufficiently powerful transmitters thanks to which their signals can be recorded in different regions of the globe; continuous work on a previously known schedule and, finally, the fact that they simultaneously emit at several frequencies, which expands the possibilities of their diagnostic use. The technique does not require additional transmitting devices and expensive antenna systems. The regular measurements using the suggested method allow carrying out the monitoring of auroral ionosphere, which will give the possibility for improving the existent models of its behavior.&nbsp;<br><br></p> O. V. Charkina, A. V. Zalizovski, Yu. M. Yampolski Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Total Ozone over Vernadsky Antarctic Station: Ground-based and Satellite Measurements <p><strong>Objective.</strong> Provide an analysis of the total ozone variations over Vernadsky Antarctic station (Faraday Base until 1996) from long-term ground-based and satellite series. Study the discrepancies between the data of different instruments.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Data visualization followed by analysis, statistical treatment of the Vernadsky Dobson spectrophotometer observations and satellite total ozone series.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Satellite and ground-based measurements of total ozone over Vernadsky station have confirmed the stabilization in the ozone layer in the stratosphere over Antarctica from the early 2000s. British Faraday Base observations have retrieved an ozone spring maximum during the 1950s–1970s with a sharp decrease in the August–October values in the 1980s–1990s. That changed substantially total ozone seasonal cycle. Satellite overpasses and model data based on satellite measurements have been analyzed. It is shown that typical discrepancies between the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) model and the Vernadsky Dobson daily means are mainly in the range of 20 DU. Larger deviations are rare and are observed predominantly on the beginning and at the end of the observational season. Seasonal means and standard deviations<br>for the model–Dobson differences were calculated that demonstrates worse correspondence of the OMI model with Vernadsky Dobson data during separate years, in particular 2009–2010.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Both Dobson and satellite ozone data over Faraday/Vernadsky station have shown the total ozone decrease during the 1980s–1990s (mainly in spring) with a following stabilization since year 2000. Comparison between the ground-based data and models calculated from satellite measurements indicates<br>better correspondence of the Dobson and GOME2 results relatively the OMI ones. There are evidences that individual Dobson measurements underestimate to some degree total ozone on the beginning of observational season at high solar zenith angles and the low total ozone values.<br><br></p> A. V. Grytsai, G. P. Milinevsky, O. I. Ivaniga Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Complex Survey of the Argentine Islands and Galindez Island (Maritime Antarctic) as a Research Area for Studying the Dynamics of Terrestrial Vegetation <p>The <strong>aim of this research</strong> was generalization of base information about study area – Argentine Islands and detail characteristic of terrestrial biotopes by description and mapping of landscape elements, surface waters, and general vegetation for the chosen monitoring area of Galindez Island realized during the seasons of 2014, 2016, 2017. We also characterized animal and anthropogenic effects on the distribution of the different vegetation types. In this research a number of methods of field investigation and mapping with ArcGIS is used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. It was shown that most types of the available vegetation are predominantly distributed on those landscape elements, which rise above the permanent snow level, as well as get free from the snow the earliest during the summer, or they are not covered with snow in the winter. Various vegetation types can be formed here from the most sensitive to the duration of the vegetative period, e.g. communities with vascular plants, to the most tolerant to prolonged staying under snow, e.g. crustose lichens. This effect depends on the height and the sunlight availability, the duration of snow-free period on it, as well as humidity, the distance from the sea and the flow of organic matter from the sea birds. At present, in the area of the Argentine Islands in general, and on the Galindez Island in particular, the expansion of <em>Pygoscelis papua</em> (Spheniscidae) is observed, which has already led to the degradation of typical vegetation types in the area where these colonies had originated. The limited input of organic matter from the seabirds contributes to the development of moderately nitrophilic groups, whereas the use of these plants and lichens as the nest material leads to the distribution of vegetation in the region. The largest anthropogenic transformation occurred in the area when the station complex was built. At present, the populations of <em>Deschampsia antarctica</em> (Poaceae) are being formed in the area, shielded by the construction elements, which also contribute to the recolonization of certain species of scalloped lichens, but only on oldest constructions of Вritish period 1954—1996.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. It’s necessary: to continuation of monitoring of the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on vegetation of the region; Limitation of the scientific collection of rare species, in particular <em>Colobanthus quitensis</em> (Caryophyllaceae); Creation of new nature protected areas with a regime of strict protection (Ia IUCN) based on the allocation of sites with the highest biodiversity valuable for monitoring in non-intervention; Additional explanatory activity on the value and vulnerability of the terrestrial ecosystems in the region.<br><br></p> I. Parnikoza, A. Berezkina, Y. Moiseyenko, V. Malanchuk, V. Kunakh Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 The Distribution of the Antarctic Limpet Nacella concinna (Nacellidae) on Underwater Landscapes of the Meek Channel, Argentine Islands, Graham Land <p><strong>Objective(s)</strong>. To clarify the patterns of <em>Nacella concinna</em> (Nacellidae) distribution in the water area of the Argentine Islands Archipelago (Meek Channel).</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> Morphometric, statistical, cartographic methods as well as geoinformation technologies were used.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> Analyzed the patterns of mollusc distribution on different transects, taking into account their morphometric characteristics — the length of the shell, the mollusс weight, the population density. It is determined that the distribution of<em> Nacella concinna</em> subpopulations does not have any visible strict regularity. At different transects with an insignificant exception the morphometric characteristics of the mollusсs are distributed both in classical and non-classical models. At the MK1 transect is shown the classical model of the distribution of morphometric characteristics, namely with an increase in the mollusс population density, the morphometric characteristics (shell length and weight of the mollusс) tend to decrease. At the MK2 transect is shown non-classical distribution model. The morphometric characteristics (shell length, mollusс weight) increase with an increase in the population density of the molluscs. At the MK3 transect is shown the classical distribution model, but a characteristic feature is an increase in the population density up to 5 m depth and a gradual decrease in the population density from 5 to 20 m. Geoinformation models of the <em>Nacella concinna</em> distribution by depth in the water area of the Ukrainian Antarctic Akademik Vernadsky station were constructed.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Maps of the distribution of the <em>Nacella concinna </em>population were created for this region for the first time. The dimensional classes of the <em>Nacella concinna</em> subpopulation from selected water areas of the Argentine Islands were described.</p> A. E. Berezkina, M. Yu. Shrestha, O. I. Sinna, D. V. Shmyrov, A. Yu. Utevsky Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Changes in Weddell Seal Leptonychotes weddellii (Phocidae) Behaviour at the First Stage of Ontogenesis <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The analysis of changing the Weddell seal diurnal activity during first two weeks post partum.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The «budget of time» method was used with measuring of time of different behavioral patterns (feeding, learning and motion activity, sleep). It was started since second day and measured every 5 days.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The correlation of time for different behavioral activity for 2, 7 and 12 days of puppi’es life changing because of feeding time decrising (since 30 % till 24 % and till 14 %) and in parallel – learning and motion activities in rising (since 42 % till 41 % and till 40 %). The time for sleeping changed insignificantly. At first days after birth certain behavioral patterns were characterized by short-term, frequent change of sequence and randomness. Later the phases of behavioral patterns became longer, more continuous and consecutive. So, beginning and the end of sleeping is correlated with the most longer feeding interval. Starting with 17 day age, the imbalance of behavioral patterns of the pup has been observed. This imbalance was caused by a long-term being in the sea and fragmentariness contact with the female. The duration of feeding behaviour, which caused by lactation, is declining to 5 %, and learning and motion activity (include being under water) incrising to 82 % (duration of sleeping embraces 13 % of total time budget) . So probably is correlation between mastering of water space and getting of meal. It compensates declining of volume of milk consumption.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> The study of the budget of time of the Weddell seal puppy has reliable results only until that period of time when the puppy started to go into the water (11—15 day age). Visualization of observing is limited by concrete location (the place of pappi’es birth). It doesn’t eliminate probability of display any behavioral patterns under water and any other place on surface of ice.<br><br></p> V. Smagol, A. Dzhulai Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 The Reproduction of the Weddell Seal Leptonychotes weddellii (Phosidae) in the Waters of the Argentine Islands Archipelago <p><strong>Objective.</strong> The study of <em>Leptonychotes weddellii</em> (Phocidae) reproduction in the waters of the Argentine Islands archipelago.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The inventory of Weddell seals was carried out on the islands of the archipelago by the route method with an inspection of the places where seals are likely to be located. Moving to the islands, depending on the ice situation, the weather conditions, was carried out on the sea ice or using a boat. The identification of <em>L. weddellii</em> was carried out in accordance with common methods.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> In September—October 2015, in the waters of the Argentine Islands archipelago, five breeding sites of<em> L. weddellii</em> were revealed. At the first site (the Three Little Pigs Islands), five parturition cases were identified, at the second one (near the old English station), the births of 4 seal pups were recorded, at the third one (the Forge Islands) — 4 pups, at the fourth one (the Black — Leopard Islands) — 8 pups, and at the fifth breeding site (Grotto — Corner — Uruguay Islands) — 11 seal pups. The sixth site was probably the Barchans Islands. During the period of the study, over 76 % of the female seals with offspring and about 24 % without seal pups were recorded. Observations indicate that females swim in advance into the water of the archipelago for further reproduction. It was found that in six females parturitions occurred a day after their appearance on the island’s shore or the ice cover, some females brought pups four, six and seven days later. During September – October 2015 more than 50 % of females gave birth to pups on the ice cover, but at the distance which did not exceed 10—15 m from the shore. The births of pups at a considerable distance from the shores of the island were recorded rarely.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> In the spring of 2015, the first female seal at birth was recorded in early September, the last one — in the second ten-day period of October, the maximum number of parturition cases was found in the third ten-day period of September. The breeding period lasted 38 days. There were recorded 32 female seals that gave birth to 18 male pups and 14 female pups. The number of seal pups was higher than in previous years, there was no postnatal mortality and no mortality of young animals was recorded. Our studies provide an opportunity to estimate the size and structure of the species population in the waters of the Argentine Islands archipelago. However, some issues of Weddell seals biology in the period of breeding need further study, in particular: spatial-temporal distribution, emigration and immigration processes in the area of the archipelago, which are related to the ice situation, the availability of feed and&nbsp; reproduction.<br><br></p> P. B. Khoyetskyy Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Features of Chronology and Breeding Success of Pygoscelis papua and P. аdeliae (Spheniscidae) Penguins in the Wilhelm Archipelago (CCAMLR Subarea 48.1) <p><strong>Objective.</strong> To investigate the qualitative changes in the habitats of two most common species penguin populations in the Wilhelm Archipelago <em>Pygoscelis papua</em> and <em>P. adeliae</em> (Spheniscidae) penguins in the CCAMLR Subarea 48.1 under the impact of climate changes and krill fishery.</p> <p><strong>Methods.</strong> The new method of time-lapse camera registration to observe the breeding success of penguins was applied to minimize the effect of human disturbance on the breeding and survival of chicks and to avoid disturbance of penguins. Installed in penguin colonies cameras were used to record next parameters: arrival to colony, copulation, egg lay, hatch and crèche. This method was introduced for the first time in the framework of the international CEMP project “Establishing a CEMP Camera Network in Subarea 48.1”. More than five years’ timeline of the project is expected. The traditional visual observation of penguin colonies from time to time has been used as well.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Over the last decade, <em>P. papua</em> has been shifted nearly 30 km southward and formed six new nesting colonies. Annual breeding success of <em>P. papua</em> on Petermann Island has ranged from 0.87 to 1.58 chicks crèche per nest over the nine seasonal observations during 2003—2017. 1.27 chicks per nest was found in 2016/17 season; a low breeding success rate in comparison to most of other seasons. The breeding success of <em>P. adeliae</em> was more stable ranging from 1.11 to 1.42 over the six seasonal observations; with highest in 2003/04. The range of prey for <em>P. papua</em> was studied.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions.</strong> Changes in the penguin species habitat have been observed on the territory of the Wilhelm Archipelago. It was established that at the beginning of the ХХІ century the nesting areas of <em>P. papua</em> was significantly extended probably due to the climate warming in the region. It was shown that <em>P. papua</em> is more ecologically plastic species than <em>P. adeliae</em>. It is well know that the breeding success of predators such as penguins can be used as an indication of the status of lower trophic levels. Since, the Antarctic krill <em>Euphausia superba</em> (Euphausiidae) is the main feeding object of the both penguin species diet (84%) in the Wilhelm Archipelago area, we propose a model of key elements for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the changes in the krill- based ecosystem of the Argentine Islands. Future development of the penguin nesting colonies monitoring using the CEMP Camera Network under the CCAMLR will contribute significantly to the real-time estimates of relative prey availability. The results of the gentoo and Adelie penguin’s chronology and breeding success studies might be used (1) in development of the krill fishery management strategy in the CCAMLR for the rational use of Antarctic marine living resources; (2) to develop a resettlement model to predict the ecological risks due to climate changes for both penguin species.<br><br></p> І. V. Dykyy, G. P. Milinevsky, О. L. Savitsky, D. G. Lutsenko, P. B. Khoetsky, M. F. Veselsky, V. M. Smagol, Ye. O. Dykyy, A. О. Dzhulay, J. V. Tsaryk, К. М. Nazaruk, А. Т. Zatushevsky, А. О. Simon, M. А. Telipska Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Combined Method of Organization of Antarctic Research Data Storage <p><strong>The main goal</strong> is to create a repository of Antarctic data that will ensure the storage of all information in all areas of research conducted at the State Institution National Antarctic Research Center of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (GU NASC) and related organizations. The paper discusses the best methods for storing research data of GU NANZ, and also reviewed methods and corresponding means for implementing data warehouses, which allows to identify and describe possible implementation options for Antarctic data stores. The proposed system of criteria by which it is advisable to evaluate each of the methods. The system is based on the requirements for the parameters of the storage of Antarctic data, which are selected as a result of analyzing the heterogeneity of types, formats and types of data from Antarctic research.</p> <p><strong>As a result</strong>, three methods were proposed: local storage, remote storage, cloud storage, which differ in economic costs, availability, memory, security, and reliability of data storage. Given the results of the analysis, we can assume that the use of cloud storage is optimal for organizing the storage of Antarctic data. It is also advisable to combine the option of organizing the storage, providing for the integration of local storage and cloud storage. In this case, the disadvantages of local storage can be reduced by placing a certain amount of resources in the cloud. Depending on the type of storage chosen, a connection is made with the SharePoint 2013 software product on which the National Antarctic Data Center (NACAD) is built.</p> N. A. Yushko, R. L. Novogrudskaya Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Ukrainian Antarctic Bibliography: Publications in 2016–2018 <p><strong>Objectives</strong> of the study is to monitor the modern national scientific literature on Antarctic research, first of all, as an element of systematic information and bibliographic as well as scientometric support for the implementation of state scientific and technical programs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: bibliographic search, scientometric analysis, bibliometric analysis, webometric analysis, and expert analysis. Ukrainian scientific journals, collections of scientific works and reference editions, scientific reports on projects for the implementation of the State Special-Purpose Research Program in Antarctica for 2011—2020, as well as national (“Scientific Ukraine”, “Bibliometryka of Ukrainian Science”, “Scientific Periodicals of Ukraine”, etc.) and foreign bibliographic databases (Scopus, Google Scholar, e-Library, and others.) were used as the main information source for compiling the bibliography.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The article presents the results of a bibliographic search and scientometric analysis of the scientific works of Ukrainian scholars and professionals, published in domestic and foreign editions, as well as in materials of international bodies of the Antarctic Treaty system in 2016—2018. The bibliographic descriptions of 353 publications, the most of which are articles in periodicals (143 descriptions) as well as conference and symposia proceedings (162 descriptions), are given. The bibliometric analysis of the data obtained reveals a stable strong dynamics of the publication activity of Ukrainian researchers and their significant contribution to the world researches of Antarctica. There is a noticeable increase in the number of publications in domestic and foreign scientific editions that are indexed in the bibliographic database Scopus. According to the portal of Scientific Periodicals of Ukraine of the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine of the NAS of Ukraine the level of relevance of publications in the Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (2007—2017) is defined. It is revealed that the bibliographic and scientometric articles are included in the top-groups of publications in the journal and have a positive trend of users demand.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: the list of current bibliography presented in the article complements and continues the bibliography of domestic publications for 2007—2015, which was submitted in previous issues of the Ukrainian Antarctic Journal (in 2009, 2010, 2012, and 2016). The bibliographic descriptions given create a factual basis for the scientometric and expert analysis of development trends and research results of domestic scientists and specialists as well as determination of the contribution of Ukraine to modern Antarctic research. The data obtained indicates the expediency of further implementation of bibliographic support of the State research programs of Ukraine in Antarctica as well as a regular publication of the current and retrospective national Antarctic scientific bibliography.<br><br></p> N. G. Videnina, V. P. Rybachuk, A. P. Fedchuk, S. I. Prymachenko, N. S. Petrenko Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 The Optimization of Selection and Planning Criteria for the Antarctic Protected Areas <p>The<strong> Aim</strong> of this piece of research is to generalize the best practices of applying selection criteria, principles and priorities, identified under the legal regime of the Antarctic Treaty System, as well as the development on scientific basis the ways of optimize the further expanding an effective and representative system of the Antarctic Protected Areas.</p> <p><strong>Methodology.</strong> The comparative legal method and method of interpretation of the legal norms for the analysis of international legal acts, which form the current environmental regime of the region, have been applied. Additional analysis of the reporting, working and informational materials submitted at the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings, and their working body – the Committee on Environmental Protection, have been made.</p> <p><strong>Results.</strong> The definitions of the concept of protected areas in the international and regional contexts, the task and principles of spatial protection and management of the terrestrial and marine environment within the Antarctic Treaty Area are analyzed. The selection criteria of possible protected areas within different categories, as well as environmental risk assessment and feasibility criteria for assessment of possible protected areas are systematized as well. It is shown that further optimization of the development the protected areas network should be carried out by the mean of systematic conservation planning, which allows creating a comprehensive and scientific based regime of complementary areas of special protection and management with the provision of three key principles for area design – comprehensiveness, representativeness, and adequacy. The comprehensiveness means coverage of the both terrestrial and marine environments, as well as areas affected by anthropogenic impact and pristine areas. The representativeness is based on the results of environmental and biogeographical regionalization with the best available spatial data on regional biodiversity. Finally, the adequacy mean the designation the most appropriate category of the area meet the specified environmental objectives – from implementing strict protection, to the definition of multiple-use areas, or the spatial management of specific activities (e.g. fisheries or tourist activities) based on adaptive zoning tools, as well as ecosystem-based management.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Obtained conclusions and recommendations could be served as a ground for systematic conservation planning process of designation an effective and comprehensive system of spatial protection and management throughout the whole region of Ukrainian scientific interests in Antarctica.<br><br></p> А. P. Fedchuk Copyright (c) Mon, 03 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200