No 2(19) (2019): Ukrainian Antarctic journal

Relationship of variations of the total electron content of ionosphere in magnetically conjugated regions with precipitation of high-energy charged particles

Y. M. Zanimonskiy
Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 4 Mystetstv Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
A. V. Koloskov
Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 4 Mystetstv Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine, State Institution National Antarctic Scientific Center, Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, 16 Taras Shevchenko Blvd., Kyiv, 01601, Ukraine
Yu. M. Yampolski
Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 4 Mystetstv Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
G. Nykiel
Gdansk University of Technology, 11/12 G. Narutowicza Str., Gdansk, Poland
A. O. Sopin
Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 4 Mystetstv Str., Kharkiv, 61002, Ukraine
Y. Y. Zanimonskiy
Yael Acceptic, 3 Irina Bugrimova square, Kharkiv, 61010, Ukraine
Published January 22, 2020
  • ionosphere,
  • Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS),
  • POES,
  • spatial distribution,
  • correlation,
  • geomagnetic disturbances
  • ...More


Purpose. A qualitative and quantitative study of the correlation of space-time changes of the total electron content of the ionosphere with variations in the energetic electron flux during a significant increase of the solar wind density and velocity. Determination of the conditions when the increase of the intensity of the flux of energetic electrons can be accompanied by the appearance of large-scale inhomogeneities of the ionosphere observed in magnetically conjugated regions of the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Methods. The research methodology is based on the construction of the time sequence of electron fluxes spatial distributions and their subsequent comparison with the maps of the total electron content (TEC) over North America and the TEC diurnal variations in magnetically conjugated regions. The degree of similarity has been estimated in this paper, and the corresponding correlation coefficients have been obtained. The TEC was calculated from the ground-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, and the electron fluxes in the ionosphere were obtained from the in situ measurements by the POES satellites. The map-making region was selected by the presence of a dense network of GNSS receivers and the presence of stations in the magnetically conjugated region of the Antarctica, as well as by the favorable configuration of spatial distribution of energetic particles at the orbital height of POES satellites. The study is based on the two geomagnetic disturbances of the St. Patrick’s Days in March 2013 and 2015. Results. The satellite and ground-based data during geomagnetic disturbances were processed by using the developed technique. It is found that the consistency of changes in the total electron content of the ionosphere and electron fluxes in time and space coincide with the variation range increase of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field that has been observed according to the data of ground-based magnetometers and indicates the existence of ionospheric currents in the geospace. According to the analysis of the two events, the assumption is made that the presence of ionospheric currents formed by protons and electrons precipitated from the magnetosphere is one of the conditions for the consistency of changes in the total electron content and electron flux. Conclusions. It is shown that during the geomagnetic disturbances the space-time changes of the ionospheric inhomogeneities are partially consistent with the variations of the fluxes of energetic electrons that allows the possibility of using these observations of TEC as indicators of precipitation.


  1. Ciraolo, L., Azpilicueta, F., Brunini, C., Meza, A., Radicella, S.M. 2007. Calibration errors on experimental slant total electron content (TEC) determined with GPS, J. Geod., 81, 2, 111-120.
  2. Chou, M.Y., Lin, C.H., Yue, J., Chang, L.C., Tsai, H.F., Chen, C.H. 2016. Medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances triggered by Super Typhoon Nepartak. Geophys. Res. Lett., 44, 15, 7569-7577.
  3. Danskin, D.W., Lotz, S.I. 2015. Analysis of geomagnetic hourly ranges. Space Weather, 13, 458-468.
  4. Dudnik, O.V., Zanimonskiy, Y.M. 2018. Peculiar properties in the behavior of energetic charged particles and in Total Electron Content variations during geomagnetic storm on March 17, 2013. 24th National Solar Physics Meeting, Kezmarok, Slovakia, 21-25 May, 2018.
  5. Dudnik, O., Zanimonskiy, E. 2018. Search of the causal relationship between TEC variations and high energy electrons streams on the example of geomagnetic storm on March 17, 2013. In Fedorov, O. (ed) Space research in Ukraine. 2016-2018. K.: Akademperiodyka, 26-32.
  6. Figueiredo, C.A.O.B., Wrasse, C.M., Takahashi, H., Otsuka, Y., Shiokawa, K., Barros, D. 2017. Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by GPS DTEC maps over North and South America on Saint Patrick's Day storm in 2015. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics., 122, 4, 4755-4763.
  7. Foster, J.C., Rideout, W. 2007. Storm enhanced density: Magnetic conjugacy effects, Ann. Geophys., 25, 1791-1799,
  8. Hernández-Pajares, M., Juan, J.M., Sanz, J., Orus, R., Garcia-Rigo, A., Feltens, J., Komjathy, A., Schaer, S. C., Krankowski, A. 2009. The IGS VTEC maps: a reliable source of ionospheric information since 1998. Journal of Geodesy, 83, 3-4, 263-275.
  9. Jin, S.,·Jin, R., Kutoglu, H. 2017. Positive and negative ionospheric responses to the March 2015 geomagnetic storm from BDS observations. J. Geod., 91: 613-626.
  10. Levitin, A., Afonina, R., Belov, B., Ya.I. Feldstein I. 1982. Geomagnetic Variation and Field-Aligned Currents at Northern High-Latitudes, and their Relations to the Solar Wind Parameters. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 304, 1484, 253-301.
  11. Nykiel, G., Zanimonskiy, Y.M., Yampolski, Yu.M., Figurski, M. 2017. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations. Sensors, 17, 10, 2298.
  12. Nykiel, G., Zanimonskiy, Y., Koloskov, A., Figurski, M. 2019. The possibility of estimating the height of the ionospheric inhomogeneities based on TEC variations maps obtained from dense GPS network, Advances in Space Research,
  13. Nykiel, G., Zanimonskiy, Y., Figurski, M. 2019. Visualization and characterization of the regional and continental TEC inhomogeneities based on the dense networks of GNSS receivers. Beacon Satellite Symposium. Olsztyn, Poland, 19-23 August, 2019.
  14. Rodger, C., Clilverd, M., Green, J., Lam, M. 2010. Use of POES SEM-2 observations to examine radiation belt dynamics and energetic electron precipitation into the atmosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 115, A04202.
  15. Shinbori, A., Otsuka, Y., Tsugawa, T., Nishioka, M., Kumamoto, A., Tsuchiya, F., Matsuda, S., Kasahara, Y., Matsuoka, A., Ruohoniemi, J.M., Shepherd, S.G., Nishitani, N. 2018. Temporal and spatial variations of storm time midlatitude ionospheric trough based on global GNSS-TEC and Arase satellite observations. Geophysical Research Letters, 45, 7362-7370. htts://
  16. Tang, L., Zhang, X., Li, Z. 2015. Observation of ionospheric disturbances induced by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami using far-field GPS data in Hawaii. Earth, Planets and Space, 67:88.
  17. Tsugawa, T., Saito, A., Otsuka, Y., Nishioka, M., Maruyama, T., Kato, H., Nagatsuma, T., Murata, K.T. 2011. Ionospheric disturbances detected by GPS total electron content observation after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Earth Planets and Space, 63, 875-879.
  18. Valladares, C.E., Eccles, J.V., Basu1, Su., Schunk, R.W., Sheehan, R., Pradipta, R., Ruohoniemi, J.M. 2017. The magnetic storms of August 3-4, 2010 and August 5-6, 2011: 1. Ground and space-based observations. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 3, 3487-3499.
  19. Verkhoglyadova, O.P., Tsurutani, B.T., Mannucci, A.J., Mlynczak, M.G., Hunt, L.A., Paxton, L.J., Komjathy, A. 2016. Solar wind driving of ionosphere-thermosphere responses in three storms near St. Patrick's Day in 2012, 2013, and 2015. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 8900-8923.
  20. Yadav, S., Sunda, S., Sridharan, R. 2016. The impact of the 17 March 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm on the evolutionary pattern of equatorial ionization anomaly over the Indian longitudes using high-resolution spatiotemporal TEC maps: New insights. Space Weather, 14, 10, 786-801.
  21. Yampolski Yu.M., Zalizovsky A.V., Lytvynenko L.M., Lizunov G.V., Groves K., Moldwin M. 2004. Magnetic Field Variations in Antarctica and the Conjugate Region (New England) Stimulated by Cyclone Activity. Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy, 9, N 2, 130-151, 2004 (in Russian).
  22. Yao, Y., Liu, L., Kong, J., Zhai, C. 2018. Global ionospheric modeling based on multi-GNSS, satellite altimetry, and Formosat-3/COSMIC data. GPS Solutions, 22:104
  23. Yizengaw, E., Dyson, P.L., Essex, E.A., Moldwin, M.B. 2005. Ionosphere dynamics over the Southern Hemisphere during the 31 March 2001 severe magnetic storm using multi-instrument measurement data. Annales Geophysicae, 23, 3, 707-721.
  24. Yizengaw, E., Moldwin, M.B., Dyson, P.L., Fraser, B.J., Morley, S. 2006. First tomographic image of ionospheric outflows. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 20, L20102,
  25. Yue, X., Wan, W., Liu, L., Liu, J., Zhang, S., Schreiner, W.S., Zhao, B., Hu, L. 2016. Mapping the conjugate and corotating storm-enhanced density during 17 March 2013 storm through data assimilation, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, 12,202-12,210.
  26. Zanimonskiy, Y., Yampolski, Yu., Nykiel, G., Figurski, M. 2018. Using total electron content variations maps created from data of global navigation satellite system for diagnostics of plasma inhomogeneities. In Fedorov, O. (ed) Space research in Ukraine. 2016-2018. K.: Akademperiodyka, 22-25.
  27. Zanimonskiy, Y.M., Paznukhov, O.V., Nykiel, G., Figurski, M. 2019. Classification and identification of sources of the periodic structures on the continental maps of total electron content. Astronomy and Space Physics in Kyiv University. Kyiv, Ukraine, 28-31 May, 2019
  28. Zhang, S.-R., Erickson, P.J., Zhang, Y., Wang, W., Huang, C., Coster, A.J., Holt, J.M., Foster, J.F., Sulzer, M., Kerr, R. 2017. Observations of ion-neutral coupling associated with strong electrodynamic disturbances during the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 1314-1337.